A critical review on various remediation approaches for heavy metal contaminants removal from contaminated soils

A critical review on various remediation approaches for heavy metal contaminants removal from contaminated soils



Heavy metals
Biological methods


Heavy metal pollution remains a global environmental challenge that poses a significant threat to human life. Various methods have been explored to eliminate heavy metal pollutants from the environment. However, most methods are constrained by high expenses, processing duration, geological problems, and political issues. The immobilization of metals, phytoextraction, and biological methods have proven practical in treating metal contaminants from the soil. This review focuses on the general status of heavy metal contamination of soils, including the excessive heavy metal concentrations in crops. The assessment of the recent advanced technologies and future challenges were reviewed. Molecular and genetic mechanisms that allow microbes and plants to collect and tolerate heavy metals were elaborated. Tremendous efforts to remediate contaminated soils have generated several challenges, including the need for remediation methodologies, degrees of soil contamination, site conditions, widespread adoptions and various possibilities occurring at different stages of remediation are discussed in detail.

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