Carbonaceous materials for removal and recovery of phosphate species: Limitations, successes and future improvement
The carbonaceous materials have gained significant interest for the phosphorus species remediation and recovery in the last decade. Carbonaceous materials present many unique features, such as cost effective, availability, environmentally friendly, and high removal efficiency that make them a promising adsorbent. In this review, the recent application of carbonaceous materials including activated carbon (AC), graphene and graphene oxide (GO), lignin, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and gC3N4 for phosphate removal and recovery were comprehensively summarized. The kinetics and isotherm models, removal mechanisms, and effects of operating parameters are reported. The reusability, lifetime of carbonaceous materials, and impact of modification were also considered. The modified carbonaceous materials have significantly high phosphate adsorption capacity compared to unmodified adsorbents. Namely, MgO-functionalized lignin-based bio-charcoal exhibited a 906.8 mg g-1 of capacity as the highest one among other reviewed materials. The modification of carbonaceous materials with various elements has been presented to improve the surface functional groups, surface area and charge, and pore volume and size. Among these loaded elements, iron has been effectively used to provide a prospect for magnetic recovery of the adsorbent as well as increase phosphate adsorption. Furthermore, the phosphate recovery methods, phosphate removal efficiency of carbonaceous materials, the limitations, important gaps in the literature, and future studies to enhance applicability of carbonaceous materials in real scale are also discussed.