Identification of heavy metal ions from aqueous environment through gold, Silver and Copper Nanoparticles: An excellent colorimetric approach

Identification of heavy metal ions from aqueous environment through gold, Silver and Copper Nanoparticles: An excellent colorimetric approach



Heavy metals
Metal nanoparticles
Functionalizing agents
Water pollution
And chemical synthesis


Heavy metal pollution has become a severe threat to human health and the environment for many years. Their extensive release can severely damage the environment and promote the generation of many harmful diseases of public health concerns. These toxic heavy metals can cause many health problems such as brain damage, kidney failure, immune system disorder, muscle weakness, paralysis of the limbs, cardio complaint, nervous system. For many years, researchers focus on developing specific reliable analytical methods for the determination of heavy metal ions and preventing their acute toxicity to a significant extent. The modern researchers intended to utilize efficient and discerning materials, e.g. nanomaterials, especially the metal nanoparticles to detect heavy metal ions from different real sources rapidly. The metal nanoparticles have been broadly utilized as a sensing material for the colorimetric detection of toxic metal ions. The metal nanoparticles such as Gold (Au), Silver (Ag), and Copper (Cu) exhibited localized plasmon surface resonance (LPSR) properties which adds an outstanding contribution to the colorimetric sensing field. Though, the stability of metal nanoparticles was major issue to be exploited colorimetric sensing of heavy emtal ions, but from last decade different capping and stabilizing agents such as amino acids, vitmains, acids and ploymers were used to functionalize the metal surface of metal nanoparticles. These capping agents prevent the agglomeration of nanoparticles and make them more active for prolong period of time. This review covers a comprehensive work carried out for colorimetric detection of heavy metals based on metal nanoparticles from the year 2014 to onwards.

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