Recent advances in removal techniques of Cr (VI) toxic ion from aqueous solution: A comprehensive review
Nowadays, due to the economic and industrial development, water contaminated with heavy metals is a significant concern and one of the acute global environmental problems. Hexavalent chromium is an important metal ion contaminant with high toxicity to bacteria, animals, plants and human, even at trace concentrations. It is potentially carcinogenic and mutagenic and can cause a serious threat to living organisms, so the efficient removal of Cr(VI) before releasing into the environment has become an essential issue from both biological and environmental perspectives. Currently, numerous techniques have been studied for Cr (VI) removal and its recycling from the wastewater. In the present study, the available Cr(VI) remediation strategies have been comprehensively reviewed for aqueous solutions and a broad range of recent research works have been evaluated. The major factors influencing the removal efficiency and mechanisms of various processes have also been briefly discussed. This can be useful for further developing Cr (VI) removal technologies to be more efficient and bridging the gap between laboratory findings and industrial applications.