Recent advances in the highly sensitive determination of zearalenone residues in water and environmental resources with electrochemical biosensors

Recent advances in the highly sensitive determination of zearalenone residues in water and environmental resources with electrochemical biosensors



Sensing platforms
Electrochemical approaches
Conventional approaches
Contaminated food samples


Zearalenone (ZEN), a significant class of mycotoxin which is considered as a xenoestrogen, permits, similar to natural estrogens, it’s binding to the receptors of estrogen resulting in various reproductive diseases especially, hormonal misbalance. ZEN has toxic effects on human and animal health as a result of its teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. To ensure water and environmental resources safety, precise, rapid, sensitive, and reliable analytical and conventional methods can be progressed for the determination of toxins such as ZEN. Different selective nanomaterial-based compounds are used in conjunction with different analytical detection approaches to achieve this goal. The current review demonstrates the state-of-the-art advances of nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensing assays including various sensing, apta-sensing and, immunosensing studies to the highly sensitive determination of various ZEN families. At first, a concise study of the occurrence, structure, toxicity, legislations, and distribution of ZEN in monitoring has been performed. Then, different conventional and clinical techniques and procedures to sensitive and selective sensing techniques have been reviewed and the efficient comparison of them has been thoroughly discussed. This study has also summarized the salient features and the requirements for applying various sensing and biosensing platforms and diverse immobilization techniques in ZEN detection. Finally, we have defined the performance of several electrochemical sensors applying diverse recognition elements couples with nanomaterials fabricated using various recognition elements coupled with nanomaterials (metal NPs, metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), graphene, and CNT) the issues limiting development, and the forthcoming tasks in successful construction with the applied nanomaterials.

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