Titanium-based MAX-phase with sonocatalytic activity for degradation of oxytetracycline antibiotic

Titanium-based MAX-phase with sonocatalytic activity for degradation of oxytetracycline antibiotic



Sonocatalytic degradation
Emerging contaminants


In light of growing environmental concerns over emerging contaminants in aquatic environments, antibiotics in particular, have prompted the development of a new generation of effective sonocatalytic systems. In this study, a new type of nano-laminated material, Ti2SnC MAX phase, is prepared, characterized, and evaluated for the sonocatalytic degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotic. A variety of identification analyses, including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, were conducted to determine the physicochemical properties of the synthesized catalyst. By optimizing the operating factors, total degradation of OTC occurs within 120 min with 1 g L-1 catalyst, 10 mg L-1 OTC, at natural pH of 7.1 and 150 W ultrasonic power. The scavenger studies conclude that the singlet oxygen and superoxide ions are the most active species during the sonocatalytic reaction. Based on the obtained data and GC–MS analysis, a possible sonocatalytic mechanism for the OTC degradation in the presence of Ti2SnC is proposed. The catalyst reusability within eight consecutive runs reveals the proper stability of Ti2SnC MAX phase. The results indicate the prospect for MAX phase-based materials to be developed as efficient sonocatalysts in the treatment of antibiotics, suggesting a bright future for the field.

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